I write about technology, psychoanalysis, philosophy, design, ideology & Slavoj Žižek.


June 8, 2011

Feedback Systems are Counterrevolutionary

Larry Sanger, co-founder of Wikipedia and Citizendium, wrote a blog post that levels the charge of anti-intellectualism against the geek community. I think this is manifestly true, and one of the most obvious indicators is the proliferation of services based on a cybernetic model of feedback that they build and promote.

Why do these indicate anti-intellectualism? An example of one of these systems is Amazon’s customer reviews. In the pre-internet world, part of the role of the retailer is to know about the product it sells, hiring salespeople who can educate customers, which implies expert knowledge. You might go into a bookstore and ask a salesperson to recommend a book. But this doesn’t scale - if you’re trying to be the world’s largest bookstore, you can’t afford to hire experts on every possible subject.

Customer still expect the retailer to provide information about the quality of the products it sells, so the expert salesperson role is replaced with an automated system that aggregates feedback from customers who purchased the product and generates a rating that serves as an indicator of quality. So in a narrow sense, Amazon is “anti-intellectual” about the products it sells – it doesn’t have knowledge, it relies on a feedback system that adapts over time.

We can see Amazon’s commitment to anti-intellectualism when this customer review system encountered a problem: how do you know if a customer review is high quality or not? The solution is the same as how to tell if a product is high quality or not: feedback. Amazon gathers feedback on the feedback, asking customers, “Was this review helpful to you?”

There are lots of other examples: Wikipedia can be seen in these terms, as can Google’s PageRank algorithm, Agile, the popular software development methodology, Twitter retweets, Tumblr reblogs, Facebook likes, Yelp restaurant reviews, social news sites like Digg and Reddit, any number of variations on the wisdom of the crowd and on and on. When Clay Shirky claimed that the problem of information overload is really a problem of filter failure, the filters he had in mind were not the expert salesperson who tells you which book to buy so you don’t have to go wandering around the store. He was talking about adaptive feedback systems that automatically and continuously sort out what we, the participants in those systems, believe is good or bad.

The key to these systems is that they take an action (which could be a wild guess at the right answer at first), receive feedback, make an adjustment and the cycle repeats – the faster, the better. The emphasis on speed and iteration makes this model a perfect complement to neoliberal capitalism, with its rapid iteration, just-in-time manufacturing, constant turn-over, optimization and creativity. Here, it appears that neoliberal capitalism is also anti-intellectual – it does not think, it simply acts and reacts to feedback.

These feedback systems often draw their inspiration from evolution. An animal does not know how its ecosystem works, and yet it is perfectly adapted to it. The animal’s DNA also doesn’t know anything about the ecosystem, yet it builds an animal that thrives. How does it do that? A random change in the DNA sequence produces a mutation in the organism’s phenotype, and if this is a useful mutation that makes the organism better adapted to its environment, it survives and reproduces more organisms with this mutation.

But this may also be a reason to be skeptical that these systems can truly be revolutionary. They are designed to adapt to the world around it, not to critically question it.

To the extent that we see our place in the world as a participant in a feedback systems, we will also never ask critical questions.


Related Posts

January 6, 2014

The Agile Labor Union

In 2001, seventeen American, British and Canadian software engineers and IT managers met at a ski resort in Snowbird, Utah, to start a movement to remake the way software is built. Over the previous decade, the attendees had independently created similar processes for organizing and managing software engineering projects that broke with tradition and promised to make software development better, cheaper, and more innovative. Their methods were diverse and went by many brand names: Extreme Programming, Crystal Clear, Scrum, Adaptive Software Development, Test Driven Development, and many others. But they also shared many goals and ideals in common. The outcome of

Read more →
August 5, 2014

The Cult of Sharing

The sharing economy’s marquee startup Airbnb recently unveiled a new brand identity and positioning to help propel its international expansion. Airbnb’s new wordmark and logo nicknamed “the Bélo” is said to have been the culmination of a year-long process, including a cross-cultural analysis to ensure their identity would be understood around the world. Exhaustive branding efforts are unusual among pre-IPO Silicon Valley companies. For years they’ve leaned on primary colors, gradients and rounded fonts, default signifiers of fun and friendliness that negate the staid formality of the more conventionally-minded business world, attempting no greater meaning than “this is not your father’s

Read more →
February 1, 2015

The Symbols of the Corporate Saints: On Ethical Consumerism

You’re awakened by the ring of your smart phone beside you. You open your eyes and smile, secure in the knowledge that the manufacturer made a sincere effort to minimize the use of conflict minerals during its construction. You opted into your local power utility’s green program, so the electricity powering your device comes from more costly, but renewable sources. You rise from your pillow and pull back the organic cotton sheets. You slept on an organic mattress that’s free of flame retardant chemicals. It cost four thousand dollars, but you care about what comes in contact with your body. In

Read more →

Recent Popular Posts

February 13, 2014

Left Activism Goes Corporate: A Detour Through the Raw Food Underground

One of the most tedious features of the Silicon Valley Hype Machine is its endless repetition of progressive sounding marketing slogans about democracy and freedom, all while promoting a pro-business agenda. But it’s too easy to read this as a sinister corporate ploy to co-opt the language of activists and twisting

Read more →
December 20, 2013

Civility: A Distance That Brings Us Together

Just in time for the holidays, Apple’s marketing department released Misunderstood, an ad about a surly teenager absorbed in his iPhone in the midst of scenes of his family’s idyllic Christmas togetherness. But he surprises everyone when he reveals that the whole time he was making a touching video for everyone

Read more →
January 26, 2014

Ten Parenting Lessons I Learned from Franz Kafka

Here’s an adage which I think is true: every theory of parenting is implicitly a theory of society. It follows that even if you aren’t a parent now, nor ever intend to be one, if you’re interested in society and culture, you ought to be interested in the topic because the

Read more →